Comparing kerosene with dibutyl ether can only be done on the thermodynamic data, because kerosene is often used in Otto engines and in combination with oil in gas turbines.
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Dibutyl ether is often used in diesel engines and in combination with additives in gas turbines. Dibutyl ether is a renewable organic fuel. Comparing the main thermodynamic properties between both fuels we see that both fuels have nearly the same properties, and the possibility is given to substitute kerosene with dibutyl ether as fuel for gas turbines.
The pathway to dibutyl ether is running over the production of dimethyl ether. In most cases dimethyl ether is produced over the intermediate product methanol CH3OH , and the Dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether. With Dimethyl ether using hydrogenation and carbonylation supported by catalysts Dimethyl ether is converted to methanol and ethanol.
Methanol is recycled and ethanol is used to be converted to butanol over a catalyst. Butanol is reduced by dehydration supported by a catalyst to dibutyl ether. The chemical reactions are listed up:. Dibutyl ether can be stored in a tank at environment pressure. Dibutyl ether as a fuel can be converted to electric energy and thermal heat with the following process: The fuel dibutyl ether is heated up and filled in the combustion swing chamber. In the combustion chamber dibutyl ether is converted with oxygen to carbon dioxide CO2 and hydrogen H2 :.
Dibutyl Ether as Fuel in Aviation Drones | Hausarbeiten publizieren
The highly exergetic heat is converted with a closed magneto hydrodynamic MHD generator system to electricity and heat. In the application the number of MHD-generators is at least one and maximum four. The liquid carbon dioxide CO2 and water H2O are stored in tanks. Figure 1: Zero Emission dibutyl ether with Plasma Generator based on the MHD technology, storing carbon dioxide and water in liquid phase in tanks. Source: Johann Gruber-Schmidt, In the figure  a simple power cycle based on dibutyl ether is shown. The fuel dibutyl ether is led into a swing combustion chamber, in which the fuel with oxygen is oxidized to carbon dioxide and steam.
The heat is converted in a small closed magnetohydrodynamic cycle.
The generator is operating based on the Hall effect. The cascade of several MHD generators enable to increase the electric efficiency. The generator produces electric power under constant voltage. The power module includes also a battery system, to stabilize the controlling and measurement system. The electric power is used for electric power driving motors. The oxygen for oxidation of dibutyl ether is take from the air. The air is preheated and led into the combustion reactor. Using two reactors lead to a combustion swing system is so very close to the continuous process.
One application of the Zero Emission Fuel is to use dibutyl ether as a fuel for drones. Drones are well-known and the next step is to enlarge the drones for passenger transportation and container transportation. The drone is an element of the three-dimensional space and enlarges the mobility from the plane surface up to the near surface earth space. This is a necessary step to increase the mobility in transportation and to stop wasting time, if the cars and truck are waiting in an unexpected traffic hold up. Drones have the advantage to act individual and free, so the flexibility of transportation and mobility is increased dramatically.
But the main problems are the high costs, the energy needed, the high quality of wood, leads to a product, without any industrial application. For industrial application we need larger pellets up to 25 mm diameter and higher, with a very low ash production, with low limits in pollution like metals and organic compounds.
Those industrial pellets can substitute fossil coal, and fossil crude oil. Beside the application of industrial pellets we are now in the position to recycle municipal waste and to produce pellets as secondary fuel or pellets as refused fuel. The classical pellets can be used in combustion chambers with attached boilers, this technology is well known. The industrial pellets can be used in gasifiers to produce a weak gas and charcoal. Again we have to recycle and separate the wood and waste wood and municipal waste into metals, plastics and biogenic waste.
The biogenic waste has to be separated into used natural wood, used coated wood, in biogenic waste and in biogenic waste with plastic foils. Metals and plastics will be recycled in the industrial processes. With the separation and recycling process we now in the position to qualify the wood waste and to generate weak gas and charcoal or to generate a strong syngas for dimethyl ether production.
Classical wood from the forestry converted to wood chips is well known. In common we are speaking from a product for the private consumer market, high quality core product with any bark. On the other side we have biogenic waste and municipal waste. Additional we have solid synthetic waste as plastic foils, plastic parts, in mots cases theses small particles cannot be separated from the biogenic waster.
At the wend we have a biogenic liquid waste, and we have the solid biogenic waste mixed with solid synthetic particles.
- SAGA - Definition and synonyms of Saga in the German dictionary.
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- Meaning of "Saga" in the German dictionary!
For the pellets we are focusing on the solid waste itself. In the table 1 the two used wood qualities are shown. Under AI we understand used natural wood, like packages, palettes, offcuts, strips, furniture, wood for civil, or old cable drums.
Synonyms and antonyms of Saga in the German dictionary of synonyms
Under used wood we understand used painted and coated wood without PVC , palettes, boxes, offcuts, windows, frames, ceilings, floors, and fixing plates in civil. An additional waste fuel are the secondary fuels or also called substitute fuels like RDF refused derived fuel. If the municipal synthetic waste is not recycled, only separated from metals and waste food, we get a combination of biogenic and synthetic waste, shredded we call this high energetic waste a secondary fuel or refused derived fuel. The limits for recycling wood for the pollution is shown in the table 2. The main interests are the metals and the poly cyclic aromatic carbon hydrates as a sum value.
The main focus is lead to the substances Chlorine Cl and lead Pb.
Dimethyl ether from Industrial Pellets as a rural smart fuel
The poly cyclic aromatic carbon hydrates are some mentioned with Lindan, Benzo a pyren and Pentachlorpheanol. Refuse derived fuel RDF is produced from domestic and business waste, which includes biodegradable material as well as plastics. Non-combustible materials such as glass and metals are removed and the residual material is then shredded.
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